REVIEW Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is an ambiphilic bile acid and is the conjugate form of ursodeoxycholic acid and taurine. Ongoing research finds TUDCA has apoptotic effects, helping with cardiac function, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's Disease, and stroke.
Recently, TUDCA has been found to have protective effects in the eye, especially for retinal degenerative disorders. Bax, a molecule that is translocated to the mitochondria to release cytochrome C, initiates the cellular pathway of apoptosis. TUDCA prevents Bax from being transported to the mitochondria. This protects the mitochondria from perturbation and the activation of caspases; therefore TUDCA acts as a chemical chaperone. Recent studies continue to show ocular protective effects via protecting retinal rods against apoptosis, choroidal neovascularization and synaptic connectivity.
Bonaldi, Antonio; Molinari, Egidio Preparation of taurine-conjugated bile acids Eur. Pat. Appl. (1994), EP 582891 A2 19940216.
Huang, Ling; Zhang, Heping; Qin, Heping; Shen, Huibing; Huang, Wenjun; Liu, Yisong Method for preparation of tauroursodeoxycholic acid hydrate Faming Zhuanli Shenqing (2012), CN 102558268 A 20120711.
Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.; Moring, Anisha G.; Pardue, Machelle T. Bile acids in treatment of ocular diseases. Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics 2009, 2 (3): 149-159.
Boatright, Jeffrey H, Nickerson, John M, Moring, Anisha G, Pardue, Machelle T. Bile acids in treatment of ocular diseas. J Ocul Biol Dis Infor 2009, 2 (3): 149-159.