Soluble in chloroform, ethanol acetone or toluene.
REVIEW Sinomenine or cocculine is a naturally occurring morphinan alkaloid found in the root of the climbing plant Sinomenium acutum which is native to Japan and China. It is traditionally used in herbal medicine in these countries, as a treatment for rheumatism and arthritis. However, its analgesic action against other kinds of pain is limited. Its anti-rheumatic effects are thought to be primarily mediated via release of histamine, but other effects such as inhibition of prostaglandin, leukotriene and nitric oxide synthesis may also be involved.
Zhao ZZ, Liang ZT, Zhou H, Jiang ZH, Liu ZQ, Wong YF, Xu HX, Liu L. Quantification of sinomenine in caulis sinomenii collected from different growing regions and wholesale herbal markets by a modified HPLC method. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Jan;28(1):105-9.
Yamasaki H. Pharmacology of sinomenine, an anti-rheumatic alkaloid from Sinomenium acutum. Acta Med Okayama. 1976 Feb;30(1):1-20.
Xu M, Liu L, Qi C, Deng B, Cai X. Sinomenine versus NSAIDs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Planta Med. 2008 Oct;74(12):1423-9.
Zhao XX, Peng C, Zhang H, Qin LP. Sinomenium acutum: a review of chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use. Pharm Biol. 2012 Aug;50(8):1053-61.