REVIEW Verapamil is a phenylalkylamine L-type calcium channel blocker. It has been used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, and, more recently, cluster headaches and is also an effective preventive medication for migraine. Verapamil has also been used as a vasodilator during cryopreservation of blood vessels.
Verapamil's mechanism in all cases is to block voltage-dependent calcium channels. Specifically, its effect on L-type calcium channels in the heart causes a reduction in ionotropy and chronotropy, thus reducing heart rate and blood pressure.
Basic substituted phenylacetonitriles Belg. (1962), BE 615861 A1 19621001.
Appel, Walter alpha-Isopropyl-alpha-[gamma-(N-methyl-N-homoveratrylamino)propyl]-alpha-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acetonitrile, its determination in biological material and its activity in blood Arzneimittel-Forschung (1962), 12, 562.
Dengel, Ferdinand Method for preparation of basically substituted phenylacetonitriles Ger. (1963), DE 1154810 B 19630926.