REVIEW Octopamine (beta, 4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an endogenous biogenic amine that is closely related to norepinephrine, and has effects on the adrenergic and dopaminergic systems. Octopamine HCl, a racemate, is an alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses.. Under the trade names Epirenor, Norden, and Norfen, octopamine is also used clinically as a sympathomimetic agent. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
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