REVIEW Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development. Retinoic acid acts by binding to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR), which is bound to DNA as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) in regions called retinoic acid response elements (RAREs). Binding of the retinoic acid ligand to RAR alters the conformation of the RAR, which affects the binding of other proteins that either induce or repress transcription of a nearby gene (including Hox genes and several other target genes). Retinoic acid receptors mediate transcription of different sets of genes controlling differentiation of a variety of cell types, thus the target genes regulated depend upon the target cells.
Sheeba CJ, Palmeirim I, Andrade RP (2012). Retinoic acid signaling regulates embryonic clock hairy2 gene expression in the developing chick limb. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 423(4):889-94. PMID 22728880.
Gulliver WP, Baker KA (2012). Effective treatment of chronic hand dermatitis with 36 continuous months of alitretinoin administration: report of three cases. J Cutan Med Surg. 16(4):267-71. PMID 22784520.
For research use only. Not for diagnostic or therapeutic use. Not for human use. AK Scientific, Inc. does not sell to individuals. If you are a first-time customer, please email for review at least two official business documents issued by your local jurisdiction, state/province, or country.
WARNING: Attention California residents: This product can expose you to chemicals including Retinoic acid, which is known to the State of California to cause birth defects or other reproductive harm. For more information, go to www.P65Warnings.ca.gov.