REVIEW Medetomidine hydrochloride is an alpha-two adrenergic agonist used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic in small animal practice (dogs). The drug was developed by Orion Pharma and is currently approved for dogs in the United States, and distributed in the United States by Pfizer Animal Health and by Novartis Animal Health in Canada under the product name Domitor. Medetomidine hydrochloride is a racemic mixture, with one of the enantiomers, dexmedetomidine has been shown to have more useful effects, and is now marketed as Dexdomitor. Interestingly, the free base form of medetomidine (distributed by the Swedish company I-Tech AB, under the product name Selektope) is use as an antifouling substance in marine paints.
Karjalainen, Arto Johannes; Pohjala, Esko Kalervo; Kurkela, Kauko Oiva Antero Substituted imidazole derivatives and their use Brit. UK Pat. Appl. (1983), GB 2101114 A 19830112.
Turpeinen, Urho; Ruotsalainen, Heikki; Pehkonen, Riitta; Lajunen, Lauri H. J.; Karjalainen, Arto Crystal structure, thermal behavior, protonation and mass spectroscopic studies of racemic 4-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole hydrochlorides. Acta Chemica Scandinavica, Series B: Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (1988), B42(8), 537-45.
Kudzma, Linas V.; Turnbull, Stanhope P., Jr. Expedient synthesis of 4(5)-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)-1H-imidazole, the alpha2-adrenergic agonist medetomidine Synthesis (1991), (11), 1021-22.
Cullen LK. Medetomidine sedation in dogs and cats: a review of its pharmacology, antagonism and dose. Br Vet J. 1996 Sep;152(5):519-35.
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