REVIEW Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine, and is highly concentrated in muscle and brain tissues. Carnosine is an antioxidant which has been proven to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydes formed from peroxidation of cell membrane fatty acids during oxidative stress. Carnosine can also oppose glycation and it can chelate divalent metal ions. Carnosine was also found to inhibit diabetic nephropathy by protecting the podocytes and mesangial cells. L-Carnosine is actively marketed as a dietary supplement, as a broad-spectrum antioxidant and supports the healthy functioning of enzyme systems, with the suspicion that carnosine plays a role in supporting longevity in some of our most vital organs.
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Reddy VP, Garrett MR, Perry G, Smith MA. Carnosine: a versatile antioxidant and antiglycating agent. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ. 2005 May 4;2005(18):pe12.
Janssen B, Hohenadel D, Brinkkoetter P, Peters V, Rind N, Fischer C, Rychlik I, Cerna M, Romzova M, de Heer E, Baelde H, Bakker SJ, Zirie M, Rondeau E, Mathieson P, Saleem MA, Meyer J, Köppel H, Sauerhoefer S, Bartram CR, Nawroth P, Hammes HP, Yard BA, Zschocke J, van der Woude FJ. Carnosine as a protective factor in diabetic nephropathy: association with a leucine repeat of the carnosinase gene CNDP1. Diabetes. 2005 Aug;54(8):2320-7.
Rashid I, van Reyk DM, Davies MJ. Carnosine and its constituents inhibit glycation of low-density lipoproteins that promotes foam cell formation in vitro. FEBS Lett. 2007 Mar 6;581(5):1067-70.
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